- Civil war in China 1927-1950 (Communists vs. Kuomintang).
- Mao Zedong's Communists take power in Beijing in 1949.
- Chiang Kai-shek's Kuomintang nationalists form their own government in Taiwan - China considers it a renegade province.
- 2013: Sisi (army chief) overthrows post-Mubarak, newly-elected Islamist government (of President Morsi) in popularly backed coup.
- 2014: Sisi wins Presidential election - starts clamping down on any dissent.
- 2015: Sisi authoritarianism re-ignites old confrontation in Egypt between radical Islamists & army - volatile situation.
- Formerly Erdoğan was a uniting figure for Turkey, but now he rules by divisiveness.
- The identity of his ruling party now = Sunni, Islamist, Turkish.
- Shia, secularists & Kurds made to feel left out.
- In power: Military-backed ruling party.
- Opposition: Aung San Suu Kyi's National League for Democracy (NLD)
- Impossible to predict outcome as limited polling data.
- Solid win for Erdogan's ruling moderate Islamist party (the AKP).
- It was a vote for stability.
- But result may sharpen social divisions.
- Secularists vs. Islamists.
- Turks vs. Kurds.
- Westernised urban elite vs. religious/conservative rural masses.
- 2.3m Syrian refugees in Turkey.
- EU scared of them slipping into Europe.
- Therefore tolerating Turkey's slide to one-man rule.
- Pro Kurdish political party.
- Alliance of leftists, Kurds, women's rights and gay rights activists.
- Won 13% of parliamentary vote in June and expected to do just as well in November rerun.
- Population = 15m.
- Participate in national elections and have recently seen success through the pro-Kurd coalition Party the HDP.
- Kurdish militants, the Kurdistan Worker's Party (PKK) in armed conflict with the government and is designated a terrorist organisation by the EU.
- Rerun of June election which resulted in historic inclusion of a pro-Kurd party, the HDP.
- But election resulted in a split parliament, failed coalition talks, hence the rerun.
- If HDP wins more than the 10% threshold for parliamentary representation, might derail Erdogan's power consolidation plans.